Tools of Evaluation in Education 3 Domains Of Bloom’s Taxonomy

With the selection of an appropriate method of teaching, the teaching and learning process becomes more efficient. A method of teaching is a means or way, including different steps that are to be followed by the teacher to achieve his or her educational goals. Nowadays, project method of teaching a medium of instruction used by majority of teachers.

With the changing times, there is revolutionary change in the entire education system. Now education is imparted to students so that they can acquire some skills in order to become self-reliant and self-employed.

The teacher must have knowledge about different methods of teaching. The selection of a method of teaching depends upon various factors such as the mental level of the students, the class environment, available resources, the capability of the teachers, the learners interests, etc.

Features of a Good Method of Teaching:

  • It should be child-centered and not based on the orders and instructions of the teachers.
  • A good method of teaching should increase the participation of the students in the class.

  • It should develop social values among the students, such as unity and cooperation.

  • A method is said to be effective when it correlates learning with real-world problems. It should bridge the gap between theory and practicality.

  • It should develop critical thinking and an inquiry nature among the students so that they become able to find the connection between different matters through the questioning.

Different Methods of Teaching:

  1. Survey Method
  2. Lecture Method
  3. Demonstration Method
  4. Project Method
  5. Activity based Method

Let us discuss the project method in detail.

Project Method of Teaching:

The Project Method originated in America from the Pragmatism Theory of John Dewey. Dr. W.H. Killpatrick developed this method in the early 20th century. Now, the majority of teachers in educational institutions use this project method.

In this method of teaching, the students are given a large number of projects. They prepare all these projects with the help of a teacher. The teacher in this method acts as a guide and mentor.

Principles of Project Method:

The project method is based on the following principles:

  1. Principle of learning by doing
  2. Principles of Practical
  3. Principle of first-hand experience
  4. Principles of social relations
  5. Principles of action
  6. Principle of freedom
  7. Principle of purpose
  8. Principle of active participation of students

“A project is a wholehearted, purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment, according to W.H. Kilpatrick.

“A project is an individual or group activity involving the investigation and solution of a problem carried out under the guidance of a teacher,according to Clark.

Types of Project Method:

Kilpatrick has divided the project work into four types: – 

  1. Drill Project: This type involves learning mainly through repetition of the processes, like completing them. It increases the work efficiency and capacity of the students.

  2. Constructive Project: Here, students are told to construct things like charts, models, tables, articles, etc.

  3. Problematic Project: In this type of project, the students have to solve a problem like What are the reasons for the slowing down of the world economy?

  4. Artistic Project: In it, the students are given projects whose objective is to develop creative skills in them, such as music, drawing, literature, poetry, and painting.

Steps involved in the Project Method:

  1. Providing the situation: The first step in this method is to raise a problem or situation in front of the students to raise some questions in their minds. It can be done through storytelling, discussion, conversation, field trips, or audio-visual aids.
  1. Choosing the Project: The teacher must act as a friend, philosopher, guide, and mentor to the students. The teacher must give projects to different students according to their mental abilities and interests. The students must be given the freedom to choose the project. It is the duty of the teacher to motivate the students to work collectively. While selecting a project, the following questions should be raised:
  • Is the Chosen Project purposeful?
  • Is it worthwhile?
  • Is it feasible?
  1. Planning: In this stage, the students must collect all necessary information, such as availability of resources, details of projects like time allotted, nature of the project, scope of the project, and degree of complexity of the project. The students must define the objectives of the project in an appropriate manner. They can come up with their ideas and discuss them with the teachers.
  1. Presentation of the Project: After the planning phase, the presentation phase comes up. In the presentation of the project, the teacher should give proper time to each and every student to present their project according to their speed. It is also the duty of the teacher to ensure that no resources are wasted.
  1. Evaluation of the Project: In the end, the teacher evaluates the projects of each student to check whether the learning objectives are achieved or not.

  2. Recording stage: Students need to keep a record of everything, such as the choice of project, planning, discussion, difficulties faced, suggestions, places visited and surveyed, duties assigned, etc.

Advantages/Importance of Project Method:

1.Develop moral skills:
In it, various moral skills are also developed in the students, such as self-dependence, sense of responsibility, patience, and confidence.

2. Permanent learning:
The project method is based on learning by doing. In this method, knowledge is given to the students directly through practical work. They get the chance to gain first-hand experience on the field, so they retain the learning for a longer period of time.

3. Psychological method:
The project method is psychological in nature, as the students are not just passive listeners but active participants.

4. Reduce the burden of homework:
It reduces the burden of homework as in classrooms projects are undertaken.

5. Develop social skills:
Since this method is based on the principle of cooperation among the students, it leads to the development of social skills like mutual love, tolerance, unity, coherence, etc.

6. Dignity of labor:
Students join hands in doing manual labor in the execution of the project irrespective of caste, creed, and social status.

Disadvantages of Project Method:

  1. Time-consuming: The project method is a time-consuming method. There is a need to look after every possible detail.

  2. Lack of resources: One of the problems with the project method is a lack of physical and financial resources, especially in underdeveloped countries.

  3. No completion of syllabus: As the project method is time-consuming, it becomes very difficult for the teacher to complete the syllabus in the allotted time.

  4. Limited scope: Another disadvantage of the project method is that it is not applicable to all subjects like mathematics, arts, literature, etc.

Difficult for Teachers:

For the efficient application of this method, there is a need for trained and experienced teachers. But the majority of the teachers are not well trained or equipped.

In short, we can say that the project method provides the students with real-life experience and knowledge, so this method should be promoted among educational institutions, whether it is a school, college, or university. For this, there is a need to provide proper training to the teachers and proper funding to the school.

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