Tools of Evaluation in Education 3 Domains Of Bloom’s Taxonomy

New Taliban Government Declared Afghanistan ‘Islamic Emirate’

The Taliban have announced an interim government in Afghanistan, and  declared Afghanistan an “Islamic Emirate”. The new Taliban government will be led by Mullah Mohammad Hassan Akhund, whose name is on a UN blacklist.

Afghanistan is an Islamic country with 99% Muslim population.The capital of the country is Kabul. Major cities of Afghanistan are Herat, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Kandhar. Afghanistan got independence on 19 August 1919 from the British.

This country is popularly known as the Graveyard of the Empires, as many foreign powers like the British empire, Russia and finally the USA failed to establish their rules. The major reason is the geographical situation of Afghanistan, as the country is mostly landlocked and mountainous.

Afghanistan again came under the rule of Taliban and Taliban, formed a new Taliban government . Taliban is a political and religious organisation that originated in Afghanistan in the 1990s.

This organization’s main objective is to conduct the administration of the country according to Shariya Law (Islam’s religious laws). The Taliban recently banned women from travelling alone.They also closed beauty parlors. Women were asked to cover their body fully with Burkha. As a result, many Afghans, especially women, fled their country.

What are the aspects of India-Afghanistan relations?

The relationship of the Indian Government with Afghanistan was very good. India has completed many development projects in Afghanistan.

  1. India constructed the parliament of Afghanistan in Kabul. Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the parliament in Afghanistan.
  2. India constructed Salma dam in Afghanistan which is known as Afghan – India friendship dam.
  3. A children’s hospital, named Indira Gandhi Institute for Child Health was set up by the Indian Government.
  4. The Zaranj Delaram Highway was built by the Border Roads Organization( BRO).
  5. India has also invested millions of dollars in the development of schools, transport, and health infrastructure.

Even after the takeover of Afghanistan by Taliban India sent 1.6 metric tons of medicine on humanitarian grounds. Taliban also thanked India for this aid and said that it will play an important role in strengthening Afghan-Indian ties. India also sent 5 lakh Covaxin doses to Afghanistan.

 

How Afghanistan was used during the cold war?

After the end of World War 2, the cold war started between the USA and the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The USSR and the US wanted to keep more countries on their side during this cold war.

India started the Non-Aligned Movement which means that neither the US nor USSR have influence on India. Afghanistan also joined the NAM. 

In 1973, Mohammed Daoud Khan became the first president of Afghanistan after ending the monarchy. He brought many social reforms in the field of education. But he was assassinated in 1978 after a military coup organized by the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

Nur Muhammad Taraki became the new president belonged to the Communist party in 1979, but he was killed under the orders of Hafizullah Amin. In 1979, the USSR entered Afghanistan after killing Hafizullah Amin, president of Afghanistan, to give its support to the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan. 

America started funding the Mujahideen through the CIA’s ( Central Intelligence Agency) secret program ‘Operation Cyclone’ to defeat the Soviet Union. As a result, the Soviet- Afghan war took place from 1979-1989.

The USSR troops served in Afghanistan for ten years and left the country in 1989. In 1992, Mujahideen took control over the country, but again a civil war started between Mujahideen and the Taliban.

Taliban won the civil war in 1996 and took power from the Mujahideen. Taliban was proved to be an extremist group because of its decisions. It destroyed the Bamiyan statue of Buddha in 2001. It also banned cinema, girls education, photography, music, kite flying and so on. 

On 11 September 2001, Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden attacked the World Trade Center in New York. The US wanted to take revenge on Osama bin Laden, but the Taliban gave asylum to Osama to hide in Afghanistan. So America invaded Afghanistan to kill Osama and to maintain peace.

The Taliban government fell in 2001. Hamid Karzai was appointed as the head of the interim government by the International Security Assistance Force. In 2004, Hamid Karzai won the election. He remained in power from 2004-2014. In 2011 finally Osama bin Laden was killed at Abbottabad, Pakistan under the ‘Operation Neptune Spear.’ But US troops remained in Afghanistan to assist Afghan troops. 

Former US President Donald Trump said that they would withdraw their troops from Afghanistan. The new US president, Joe Biden, also continued to follow Trump’s policy. The US troops left the country on 15th August 2021 after 20 years.

America said that it spent over $2 trillion to maintain stability and peace in Afghanistan. This decision by the Biden administration was backed by the Americans; however, the world criticized the US government for failing to control the situation.

 

The Taliban government gets support from Russia, Pakistan, China, and some other countries. Taliban members also met with Western officials on 24th january 2022 to discuss the Afghanistan food crisis in Oslo.

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