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Quick glance: 

● Azerbaijan-Armenia conflict has again escalated. 

● Azerbaijan started a military operation against Armenia, but after 24 hours, Azerbaijan halted the operation. 

● More than 27 people were killed in this attack. 

● With the Russian peacekeeping force, peace has been again established in the region. 

Azerbaijan-Armenia Conflict:

On September 20, 2023, Azerbaijan attacked Armenia. On Azerbaijan attack on Armenia, the President of Azerbaijan, IIham Aliyev, said that it is a military operation against the terrorists. However, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan called this military operation a genocide attack. Azerbaijan alleged that Armenia provided arms supply to the People of Nagorno-Karabakh in unstable Azerbaijan. 

Nagorno-Karabakh authorities said that more than 30 people have been killed in this attack, and about 200 people are injured. Russia requested that both countries follow the 2020 ceasefire agreement. The Defense Ministry of Russia has said that with its intervention, the ceasefire has been implemented. However, the ceasefire was lifted after the surrender of Armenian forces. 

The root cause of the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia is Nagorno-Karabakh. This conflict has been going on for decades. Let us discuss some details about this region: 

Where is Nagorno-Karabakh located? 

● It is a mountainous and landlocked region located between Europe and Asia.

● The total population of Nagorno-Karabakh is 150,000. 

● The majority of the population in this region is ethnic Armenian. Armenians are Christians, whereas the population of Azerbaijan is mostly Turkish Muslims.

● The administrative control of this region is in the hands of the Republic of Artsakh; however, at the international level, it is considered a part of Azerbaijan.

● The capital of Nagorno Karabakh is Strepanakert. Susha is another major city in Nagorno Karabakh. 

● It is governed by a separatist Armenian organization called Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. 

History of the Azerbaijan and Armenia Conflict 

1. Azerbaijan and Armenia Both countries were part of the Russian Empire during the 19th century, but when the Tsarist regime fell, both Azeris and Armenians made their own separate countries. 

2. They started to fight over the control of Nagorno Karabakh. But then the Soviet Union captured the whole region. Nagorno Karabakh was given to Azerbaijan. 

3. In 1988, the population of Nagorno-Karabakh passed a referendum to leave Azerbaijan and join Armenia. The violence took place in the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

4. Then came the year of the 1991 crisis, in which the Soviet Union was disinterested. The Soviet Union was divided into 15 countries. Out of these 15 countries, two were Azerbaijan and Armenia. Both countries declared themselves independent.

● The First War of Azerbaijan and Armenia:

Azerbaijan and Armenia indulged in the first war from 1988 to 1994 to capture the Nagorno-Karabakh region. The war came to an end with the victory of Armenia. Armenia captured many towns in Azerbaijan and filled these towns with Armenian people. The ceasefire treaty was signed between both countries with the intervention of Russia. The people of Nagorno-Karabakh declared themselves independent and formed the Republic of Artsakh to control the administration of the region. 

● Four-day war:

A four-day conflict also took place between Azerbaijan and Armenia in 2016. They reached a peace agreement in Moscow to stop the aggression. 

● Second War of Azerbaijan and Armenia:

In September 2020, clashes started between the forces of two countries in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Turkey fully supported Azerbaijan by sending highly advanced drones. Turkey helped Azerbaijan because both are Muslim-majority countries. This war came to an end after 44 days on November 8, 2020, with a ceasefire agreement. In this war, more than 6,000 people were killed. This

44-day war was a victory for Azerbaijan as it captured a major portion of 

Nagorno-Karabakh and many Armenian areas. Russia and Turkey deployed their peacekeeping forces in the region to maintain peace.


Stance of Other Countries: 

Russia: Russia has good ties with both Armenia and Azerbaijan. Russia has a security alliance with Armenia and also has a military base in Armenia. At the same time, it sells arms to both countries. It always requested that both Azerbaijan and Armenia stop the conflict. 

India: India signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty with Armenia in 1995, which prohibits India from selling any weapons to Azerbaijan. In July 2023, India sent the Pinaka multi-barrel rocket launcher through Iran to Armenia. So we can say that India is in support of Armenia against Azerbaijan. 

Pakistan: Pakistan is supporting Azerbaijan as it supplied the KRL-122 Ghazab 122 mm multiple rocket launcher system to Azerbaijan. 

Turkey: Recep Tayyip Erdogan, President of Turkey, is openly supporting Azerbaijan. He said that Azerbaijan and Turkey are following the principle of one nation and two states. He further added that Azerbaijan, through this military operation, is just trying to protect its territorial integration.


Effects of War 

● This region is very important for the supply of gas and oil. A gas and oil pipeline passes from Azerbaijan to Georgia, Turkey, and Europe. This war will badly affect the supply of oil and gas. 

● Because of the violence thousands of people have been killed and lakhs of citizens have become refugees in their own countries.

In short, we can say that the conflict between both countries should be resolved through diplomatic talks. Big players like Russia, the United States, and the European Union should intervene to resolve the conflict.

What is the reason for the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia?

The main reason for the conflict between the two countries is Nagorno-Karabakh. They want to merge this region into their own country. Azerbaijan is a Muslim-majority country with a 60% Shia and 40% Sunni population. On the other hand, Armenia has a Christian-majority population.

Who won the Azerbaijan-Armenia war in 2020?

The 2020 war has been won by Azerbaijan as it has captured major areas of Armenia.

Who won the Azerbaijan-Armenia War in 1991?

The 1991 war was won by Armenia as it captured many regions of Azerbaijan.

Which countries support Azerbaijan?

Pakistan and Turkey are the major countries that are supporting Azerbaijan. Pakistan is the only country that does not recognize Armenia as a country.

Who supports Armenia?

India, France, and Greece are good allies of Armenia and support Armenia.

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