In order to make teaching more effective, it is the duty of the teacher to select the best method of teaching. There are various methods of teaching, but here we will discuss deductive and Inductive teaching Methods in detail.

● Discussion method

● Survey method

● Lecture method

● Deductive-inductive method

**Deductive and Inductive Teaching methods**:

**Inductive method: **

The word inductive is derived from the Latin word, which means to induce or to lead. This method helps the student arrive at general conclusions through observation in particular.

Specific Example: Research-Making Generalizations

**Steps of the Inductive method of teaching: **

### 1. **Observation: **

The first step is to observe various cases, situations, and instances. In it, the teacher gives examples related to the topic. The learner then tries to use his or her senses and give meaning to the example.

### 2. **Collection of facts: **

Students collect different facts about the examples and do the simplifications.

### 3. **Generalization: **

The students generalized their knowledge, which was obtained from the examples of particular facts.

### 4. **Verification: **

The students, after generalization, verify whether the conclusions are applicable to all topics or not.

It can be understood with the help of an example of the law of diminishing returns. When a farmer increases labor and capital in the field but the production starts to decrease after a year, an economist observes this scenario in a number of other farms and arrives at a generalization known as the law of diminishing returns.

**Types of Inductive Methods: **

1. **The experimental inductive method **is a type of scientific method in which rules, examples, theories, and principles are verified and analyzed according to their utility. It is mostly used in science.

2. **Statistical inductive method: **In this method, students collect the data, conduct comparative studies, and lay down generalized principles. It is mostly used in social science.

**Merits of the Inductive Method: **

● It makes the **lesson interesting** as the students learn about different examples through audio, video, or photos.

● In this method, **knowledge is acquired** from experience.

● It is **realistic** in nature as it is based on facts.

● This method is based on** psychological principles**, as it promotes learning by doing. ● It develops the qualities of critical thinking, self-confidence, curiosity, and a scientific attitude.

● It develops a **good relationship** between teacher and students because students are always in need of the teacher to arrive at generalizations.

● The inductive method helps in **future inquiries**, as once a generalization is established, it becomes the starting point of future inquiries.

**Demerits of the Inductive Method:**

1. It is a time-consuming method as it requires the time and energy of the teacher.

2. Another disadvantage of this method is drawing wrong conclusions, as sometimes students draw conclusions without proper investigation and research of the data.

3. This method is not appropriate for all subjects, such as history, where facts are more important.

4. The deductive method is not complete without the inductive method. Both inductive and deductive methods go hand in hand.

**Deductive Method **

Deduction means to take away. It is exactly the opposite of the inductive method. In this method, the learner proceeds from general to particular, abstract to concrete, and formula to example. The formula is considered to be pre-established.

**According to Miller**, “deduction is a method of using a general principle to reach specific conclusions”.

Theories observation examples

**Steps of the Deductive Method: **

### 1. **Perception of the problem: **

The teacher must have a clear and precise idea of the problem to be inquired into.

### 2. **Defining the term: **

The teacher must define the technical terms that are related to the topic.

### 3. **Deduction of hypothesis: **

The next step in the deductive method of teaching is to deduce the hypothesis from the assumptions. The meaning of the hypothesis

### 4. **Testing of hypotheses: **

They should be verified through observations of events in the real world.

**Merits of the Deductive Method: **

### 1. **Time-saving: **

This method is time-saving as students are not required to analyze the universal principles.

### 2. **Simplified teacher work: **

It simplifies the teacher’s work as the teacher gives general principles and students verify them. It reduces the burden on the teacher, and the teacher finds themselves in a comfortable and secure position.

### 3. **Useful for covering the syllabus: **

A teacher can cover the lengthy syllabus of a class in the shortest period of time.

### 4. **Economical: **

It saves money and energy for both the teacher and students, as there is no need to do research, observation, or collection of data.

### 5. **Suitable for junior classes: **

It is suitable for junior classes who can’t reverse the truth for themselves. They get ready-made material.

**The demerits of the Deductive Method**:

### 1. **Encourage memorization. **

It promotes rote learning. The students soon forget the concept. They lack motivation to become self-sufficient.

### 2. **Un psychological: **

It is unpschlogocal as there is no active role of students; they take no participation in observations. The students do not verify the conclusions themselves.

### 3. **Inadequate abilities: **

There is no development of scientific ability, critical thinking, self-confidence, or initiative among the students.

### 4. **Not suitable for all the methods: **

This method does not cover all the subjects, such as science because there is a need to give an example.

### 5. **Incomplete methods: **

This is an incomplete method without an inductive method of teaching.

**Combination of the Inductive and Deductive methods **

➔ Induction is the forerunner, and deduction is used as a follow-up to understand the topic obtained earlier by induction.

➔ Both methods are not rivals, but partners. The shortcomings of one method can be erased with the help of the other method.

➔ The deductive method is suitable for the theory, and the inductive method is suitable for practical applications of the topic.

➔ Inductive and deductive methods are needed for scientific study as the right and left feet are needed for walking. Alfred Marshall

➔ Muller said that As one blade of scissors is not enough for cutting the cloth in the same way, both methods are compulsory, as both blades are compulsory.

In short, we can say that

● Both methods are complementary to each other.

● Both have equal importance in studying the topic.

● The inductive method is the predecessor of the deductive method.

● The inductive method is dependent on the deductive method for the verification of laws, theories, facts, and principles.

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sure…I will work on it. Thanks

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