In this article we will understand about Bruner’s concept attainment model. A model of teaching consists of ways and means followed by the teacher to teach the students. In other words, we can say that a model means methods of teaching, plans, and patterns adopted by the teacher to achieve his or her educational goals. Every teaching model has six fundamental elements, which are as follows:

a) Focus b) Syntax c) Social system d) Principle of reaction e) Support system f) Application

**Focus:**It means the central idea or main aspect of the model. Different teaching models have different focuses.

**Syntax:**It includes the different classroom activities of both the teachers and the students.

**Social system:**It means the relationship between the teacher and students. Some models are teacher-centered, some are child-centered while some models of teaching give equal place to both the teachers and the learners.

**Principle of reaction:**It tells how the teacher should react to the learner’s response.

**Support system:**This element focuses on special requirements like teaching aids, materials, special skills, and knowledge beyond human capabilities and skills. The support system plays a significant role in the successful implementation of the teaching model.

**Application:**It tells us about the usage of the model; that is where the model can be implemented.

**Characteristics of a good teaching model:**

- It enables effective interaction between the teachers and learners.
- A good teaching model motivates the students to learn different concepts and topics.
- Every model improves the cognitive development of the students.
- The teaching model creates a learning environment in the class.
- It makes the teaching strategies more effective and efficient.

The most famous model of teaching is Bruner’s concept attainment model. Let us discuss this model in detail.

**What is Bruner’s concept attainment model?**

This model was given in 1956 by Jerome Bruner, Jacqueline Goodrow, and George Austin collectively. But the contribution of Brune was maximum, so it was named after Jerome Bruner. Bruner’s name is mentioned in the 100 most influential American psychologists.

According to Bruner’s concept attainment model, a child can learn any concept at any stage of development. Here concept means an idea or theory about a particular subject. The teacher teaches students concepts by contrasting and comparing the relevant and irrelevant examples. This model helps the students to develop critical thinking.

There are two types of examples: a) positive examples; b) negative examples.

Positive examples: These examples are related to the concept.

Negative examples: These examples are not related to the concept.

**Example of Bruner’s concept attainment model**

**Name of the concept:** weather

**Examples:** sunny, rainy, cloudy, foggy

**Attributes:** temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure, humidity

Also Read: Bloom’s Taxonomy

**Elements of the Concept Attainment Model-**

**Focus:**The main central idea or theme of Bruner’s concept attainment model is to develop the inductive reasoning in the students. Inductive reasoning means when we understand the concept from examples.

**Syntax:**

- The teacher will present positive or negative examples related to a concept using pictures or objects.
- Students will compare the attributes of these positive and negative attributes.
- Then they will give their own examples according to their imagination.
- Students will tell how they think about these examples.

**Social system:**In Bruner’s concept attainment model, both the teacher and students have been given importance. The teacher plans and organizes classroom activities, and the students have been provided freedom to take part in discussion. They are also allowed to construct their own examples related to the concept.

**Principle of reaction:**This model stresses that the teacher should motivate the students to ask questions or to take part in the discussion. The teacher should act as a facilitator and guide.

**Support system:**According to the mode, there should be special books, laboratories, and a free atmosphere in the classroom.

**Application:**Bruner’s concept attainment model is applied in the following fields.

- This model can be used in understanding the fundamental concepts of mathematics and science.
- It is used for all age groups.
- It is also used in teaching grammar rules.
- This model helps in the evaluation of the learners.

**Advantages of Bruner’s concept attainment model:**

- It enhances the critical reasoning in the students.
- This model is based on the principle of scaffolding. Here, scaffolding means when the teacher gives guidance to the students at each stage so that learning becomes easy for them.
- It increases the participation of the students in the classroom activities.
- It also enhances logical reasoning among the students.
- This model has a wider scope as it can be used in all the subjects.
- It provides freedom to the learners.

**Criticism of Bruner’s concept attainment model:**

- It is a time-consuming model as all the students have to participate in classroom discussions.
- In order to implement this model, the teacher should be experienced and trained. But in a country like India, there is a shortage of trained teachers.
- This model may not be applicable when there is a lack of support systems, additional resources, and material.

In short, these teaching models are important for the teachers to bring a positive change in the attitude and behavior of the learners.